On completion of the test you will have what is called an **observed **or **calculated value. **In order to see whether your findings are statistically significant you need to consider several factors:

**Was your**If it was directional you will choose a one tailed test if it was non-directional you should choose a two tailed test.__hypothesis directional or non directional__?

__How many Pps__**did you have?**

- If conducting a Chi Squared, what are the
(the instructions to calculate this are provided with the rest of the equation)__degrees of freedom__

- What is your
? In Psychology we use the 5% level, (p<0.05) which means that there is less than a 1 in 20 probability that the results were due to chance.__chosen level of significance__

**Comparing critical and observed values:** Once we have the answers to all of these questions we can look up the **critical value. **The next job is to compare the observed value and the critical value.

- For a
**Chi Squared or a Spearman’s Rho**, we can only accept the hypothesis if the**observed value is greater than**the critical value.

- For a
**Mann Whitney U test**we can only accept the hypothesis if the**observed value is less than**the critical value.

**Type 1 errors: **A type 1 error occurs if an experimental/alternate hypothesis is accepted in error, i.e. the null was in fact true. This can result from choosing a significance value which is too high. A type 1 error is a false positive, e.g. saying the results were significant when they weren’t.

**Type 2 errors:** A type 2 error occurs if an experimental/alternate hypothesis is rejected in error, i.e. the null was in fact false. This can result from choosing a significance value which is too low. A type 2 error is a false negative, e.g. saying the results were not significant when they were.