Ethical considerations in reporting results and applying findings.

Results &Findings

The treated data so measures of central tendency, dispersion, graphs and charts and inferential statistics. The inferences that are made on the basis of the results, i.e. that we can generalise what has been found to the wider target population. Findings are basically conclusions drawn from the data.

Sieber & Stanley’s (1988) Ethical guidelines for the publication and application of Socially Sensitive Research.

Justice & equitable treatment

Unjust treatment includes publishing an idea that leads to prejudice against a group or withholding treatment that you believe is beneficial from some participants so that you can use them as controls.

Sound & valid methodology

When research findings are publicised, people are likely to take them as fact and policies may be based on them. It is important that the limitations of the studies are explicitly communicated to all constituents.


It is important that findings are stated precisely and cautiously to avoid misunderstandings or misinterpretations of the research. Any misrepresentations of the findings by policymakers or the media should be directly addressed by the researchers.


Researchers should be aware of how their findings may be used by others. They should make explicit the assumptions underlying their research so that the public can consider whether they agree with these. They should be aware of their own values and biases and how they may have influenced their findings