Long term/short term orientation

This study looks at the long term/short term orientation and how impatient people are , measured by whether they are more likely to choose standard (cheaper) or express delivery (more expensive). Click on Chen’s name to find the original article.

Chen et al. (2005): Chen, H., Ng, S., & Rao, A. R. (2005). Cultural differences in consumer impatience. Journal of Marketing Research42(3), 291-301. DOI: 10.1509/jmkr.2005.42.3.291

Some parts f the original article are a bit challenging. There is a short summary in the Pearson’s text book on p.138:



You could also look at the studies by:

  • Ayoun and Moreo (2009)
  • Levine and Norenzayan (1999)

See Pearsons old spec textbook , p139.

Test your understanding:

  1. Describe the values of a long term time orientation culture (2)
  2. Describe the values of a short term time orientation culture (2)
  3. Give example of three long term time orientation cultures and three short term time orientation cultures ranked on a scale and showing their score out of 100 (6)
  4. Explain how and why the values of a long term time orientation culture affects patience and impatience. (2)
  5. Describe the work of Graham (1981) on the concept of time across cultures. (3)
  6. Explain the values of Confucian Dynamism (5)
  7. What is the link between Buddhism, Confucianism and long term/short term time orientation (4)
  8. Give examples of surface culture (behaviours) and deep culture (values) that relate to ST/LT orientation now that you have completed the readings.

IB assessment style questions

  1. SAQ: Describe how one cultural dimension affects one behaviour (9)
  2. ERQ: Examine how one or more cultural dimensions affect behaviour (22)