This study looks at the number of tipped professions and masculinity/femininity )it also looks at other dimensions as well):

It shows that there is a relationship between the two and explains this neatly.

This article is a replication of the one above and shows that the size of the tips left also is correlated with masculinity. At the moment we can only access the abstract.

The first paper also provides some very interesting information about the Japanese concept of ‘on’. Japan was removed from the analysis as tipping behaviour was so low in this country despite very high masculinity score; it appeared to be an outlier that does not follow the same rules as other countries, i..e the higher the masculinity the more tipping occurs in the country. You could use ‘tipping’ as an example of surface culture and ‘on’ as an example of deep culture.

Another study which shows that M/F does not have an affect on gender stereotyping which happens everywhere regardless on M/F!

This study is a content analysis which compares gender stereotyping in advertising across cultures but find little impact of the cultural dimension of Masculinity/Femininity.

  1. Describe the values of a masculine culture (2)
  2. Describe the values of a feminine culture (2)
  3. Give example of three feminine cultures and three masculine cultures ranked on a scale and showing their score out of 100 (6)
  4. Explain how and why the masculinity of a culture affects tipping behaviour. (2)
  5. Copy the scatterplot that shows the positive correlation between masculinity and number of professions where tipping occurs in a  country.
  6. Explain what is meant by the Japanese concept of ‘on‘ and explain how this links to deep culture whereas tipping relates to surface culture (you may want to do some further research on this).

IB assessment style questions

  1. SAQ: Describe how one cultural dimension affects one behaviour (9)
  2. ERQ: Examine how one cultural dimension affects behaviour (22)