Psychopathology

Definitions of abnormality

  • deviation from social norms;
  • failure to function adequately;
  • statistical infrequency;
  • deviation from ideal mental health.

Phobias

  • the behavioural, emotional and cognitive characteristics of phobias.
  • the behavioural approach to explaining phobias:
    • the two-process model, including classical and operant conditioning.
  • the behavioural approach to treating phobias:
    • systematic desensitisation, including relaxation and use of hierarchy;
    • flooding.

Depression

  • the behavioural, emotional and cognitive characteristics of depression.
  • the cognitive approach to explaining depression:
    • Beck’s negative triad;
    • Ellis’s ABC model.
  • the cognitive approach to treating depression;
    • cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), including challenging irrational thoughts.

OCD

  • the behavioural, emotional and cognitive characteristics of OCD.
  • the biological approach to explaining OCD:
    • genetic explanation;
    • neural explanation.
  • the biological approach to treating OCD;
    • drug therapy.